Homographs (same writing) but not homophone (not same pronunciation), aka require a suffix to differentiates these audios. The suffix should not be pronounced when recording, but it will appear in the filename. For more convenience, this suffix should be added to the List:{ISO}/{list title} you plan to record, before recording it.

Euler diagram showing the relationships between heteronyms and related linguistic concepts.


  1. If one pronunciation is clearly the norm, no suffix is needed.
  2. For equal rank or rare pronunciations, add to that word a suffix within brackets, example:
    # word (suffix).
  3. This suffix should hint at the difference between two homographs or more.
  4. The suffix must be consistent and stable, e.g. if you start with (noun), (verb), keep that exact convention for all your recordings. If you start with a transcription, keep on that transcription. Etc.
  5. The suffix is in the same language as the word, e.g. red (noun), အနီရောင် (နာမ်).
  6. Abbreviated suffixes should be avoided. Prefer full suffix adjective, verb, noun, casual, formal, ...

Homographs homophones

Given one language and one speaker, one recording for them all. Even if meaning or role (part of speech) diverge.

Homographs non-homophones

The following are homographs non-homophones, the part between brackets is not read aloud in LinguaLibre but is used to distinguish those recordings.

Distinction via semantic synonyms. In English :

  • # crooked (injured), pronounced and recorded `crookaid` /ˈkrʊkɪd/
  • # crooked (corrupt), pronounced and recorded `crookt` /ˈkrʊkt/

Distinction via pronunciation. In Mandarin Chinese, using toned Hanyu pinyin:

  • # 雨 (yǔ), noun, pronounced and recorded `/yː3/`
  • # 雨 (yù), verb, pronounced and recorded `/y:4/`

Distinction via the part of speech. In French :

  • # excellent (verb), pronounced and recorded `excel` /ɛk.sɛl/
  • # excellent (adjective), pronounced and recorded `excellant` /ɛk.sɛ.lɑ̃/

Distinction via pronunciation. In English, using IPA:

  • # crooked (/ˈkrʊkɪd/), pronounced and recorded `crookaid` /ˈkrʊkɪd/
  • # crooked (/ˈkrʊkt/), pronounced and recorded `crookt` /ˈkrʊkt/

Distinction via cultural dimension, depending on the public (hierarchy, age, seniority). In Japanese :

  • # 昨日 (default), pronounced and recorded `きのう` (kinō)
  • # 昨日 (polite), pronounced and recorded `さくじつ` (sakujitsu)
  • # 明日 (default), pronounced and recorded `あした` (ashita)
  • # 明日 (polite), pronounced and recorded `あす` (asu), `みょうにち` (myōnichi)
  • # 私 (default), pronounced and recorded `わたし` (watashi)
  • # 私 (polite), pronounced and recorded `わたくし` (watakushi)

In practice

Within your list such as List:mnw/Commons, transform :

# ကစေံ1
# ကစေံ2
# ကစေံ3
# ကစေံ4


# ကစေံ (read)
# ကစေံ (speak)
# ကစေံ (Tang)
# ကစေံ (Te)

You can now record your words, without reading the suffix.

Technical details

The suffix is not part of the word and is stored with the property qualifier (P18) in the Wikibase. See fils (enfant) (Q1686) and fils (pluriel de fil) (Q1685) for example. It is then possible to query recordings without mixing words and suffixes.

See also

Lingua Libre Help pages
General help pages Help:InterfaceHelp:Your first recordHelp:Choosing a microphoneHelp:Configure your microphoneHelp:TranslateHelp:LangtagsLinguaLibre:Language codes systems used across LinguaLibreLinguaLibre:List of languages
Linguistic help pages Help:Add a new languageHelp:HomographsHelp:List translationHelp:Ethics
Lists help pages Help:Create your own listsHelp:How to create a frequency list?Help:Why wordlists matter?Help:Swadesh listsHelp:ListsHelp:Create a new generator
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